Public Safety Diving


Public Safety Diving (PSD) is a specialized field within the realm of scuba diving that involves the performance of underwater tasks by certified professionals, primarily from law enforcement, fire department rescue, and search and recovery dive teams. These individuals are specifically trained to address a wide range of underwater scenarios, including evidence retrieval, body recovery, and rescue operations. This entry will provide an overview of the history, key organizations, training, equipment, and challenges associated with Public Safety Diving.


Public Safety Diving emerged in the mid-20th century as a response to the increasing demand for underwater search, rescue, and recovery operations. The evolution of modern scuba diving equipment allowed law enforcement and emergency response agencies to conduct underwater operations safely and effectively. Throughout the years, PSD has become an integral component of public safety, with dedicated teams serving communities around the world.

Key Organizations:

Several organizations play a critical role in the development, training, and standardization of Public Safety Diving, including:

  1. National Association of Underwater Instructors (NAUI) – NAUI was one of the first organizations to develop specialized training programs for public safety divers, including courses in rescue diving, evidence recovery, and underwater investigation.
  2. Professional Association of Diving Instructors (PADI) – PADI offers a comprehensive range of courses and certifications for public safety divers, such as the Public Safety Diver and Public Safety Diver Instructor programs.
  3. Divers Alert Network (DAN) – DAN provides essential support to the PSD community through research, training, and the dissemination of best practices for dive safety and emergency response.
  4. International Association of Dive Rescue Specialists (IADRS) – IADRS is a global organization that promotes the standardization of dive rescue training, equipment, and techniques for public safety divers.


Becoming a Public Safety Diver requires a combination of standard scuba diving certifications and specialized training courses. In general, PSD candidates must first obtain an open water diving certification, followed by advanced and rescue diver certifications. Upon completing these prerequisites, individuals can enroll in specialized PSD training courses, which cover topics such as:

  • Underwater search and recovery techniques
  • Evidence preservation and documentation
  • Underwater navigation and communication
  • Victim recovery and body handling
  • Dive team organization and management
  • Emergency response procedures

Training programs may also include scenarios that simulate real-world conditions and challenges, such as limited visibility, strong currents, and entanglement hazards.


Public Safety Divers utilize specialized equipment designed to enhance their safety, efficiency, and effectiveness during underwater operations. Some of the unique gear used in PSD includes:

  1. Full-face masks – These masks allow divers to communicate with the surface and other team members while providing enhanced protection from contaminated water.
  2. Drysuits – Drysuits help divers maintain a comfortable body temperature and provide a barrier against hazardous materials or contaminants.
  3. Surface-supplied air systems – In some cases, PSD divers may use surface-supplied air systems to reduce the risk of running out of breathing gas during prolonged or deep dives.
  4. Underwater metal detectors and sonar equipment – These tools assist in locating evidence or victims in low-visibility conditions.
  5. Lift bags and recovery devices – Lift bags and other recovery devices are essential for raising heavy objects or victims from the underwater environment.


Public Safety Diving is a demanding and challenging field, often characterized by difficult environmental conditions, emotional stress, and potential hazards. Some of the most common challenges faced by PSD divers include:

  • Limited visibility and poor water quality
  • Strong currents and unpredictable underwater conditions
  • Entanglement hazards from submerged debris or vegetation
  • The emotional impact of recovering deceased victims
  • The risk of exposure to hazardous materials or contaminants

Despite these challenges, Public Safety Divers remain dedicated to their mission of providing critical underwater support for their communities in times of need.

Technological Advancements:

As technology continues to advance, Public Safety Diving has seen significant improvements in equipment and techniques, enhancing the overall safety and efficiency of underwater operations. Some notable advancements include:

  1. Underwater communication systems – Modern full-face masks and communication systems allow divers to maintain clear and constant communication with their team, both above and below the surface.
  2. Remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) – ROVs can be used to survey underwater environments and locate objects or victims, reducing the need for divers to enter potentially hazardous situations.
  3. Side-scan sonar – This technology enables teams to create detailed images of underwater environments, facilitating more efficient search and recovery efforts.
  4. Underwater GPS and navigation systems – These tools aid divers in accurately navigating complex underwater environments and documenting the location of evidence or objects of interest.

Future Prospects:

As the field of Public Safety Diving continues to evolve, there is a growing need for increased collaboration and standardization across different organizations and jurisdictions. This will help ensure that PSD teams are well-equipped and well-trained to face the unique challenges of their profession.

Moreover, the integration of emerging technologies, such as artificial intelligence and advanced underwater robotics, has the potential to revolutionize the way Public Safety Divers conduct their operations. By leveraging these cutting-edge tools, PSD teams can further enhance their capabilities, safety, and efficiency in responding to underwater emergencies.

In conclusion, Public Safety Diving is a vital component of public safety and emergency response efforts, encompassing a wide range of underwater tasks carried out by law enforcement, fire department rescue, and search and recovery dive teams. These dedicated professionals undergo rigorous training and employ specialized equipment to ensure the safety and effectiveness of their operations. As technology continues to advance and the field evolves, Public Safety Diving will remain an indispensable resource for communities around the world.